The techniques of artificial insemination AI actually begin prior to the procedure. Housing the male poultry away from the hens maximizes the amount of available semen. Roosters and tom turkeys need to be routinely primed for semen collection for several days prior to the actual AI procedure to guarantee each bird is fertile with a microscopic examination of the sperm. One person can handle this procedure with small birds such as chickens or quail; it normally takes two people with a large turkey or goose.
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Male chickens can mate with females as often as they like and still hope to spread their genes far and wide. That's because roosters can control how much sperm they expend during a sexual encounter, allowing them to use more or less depending on social and environmental factors. His team recently discovered this phenomenon while studying a group of free-ranging chickens in Sweden. Roosters judge a female's reproductive value by the size of her comb.